New Alien Life Discovered? - NASA researchers find a new life form that uses arsenic instead of phosphorus


     Related Videos
Sending Google Into Space to Search for Alien Life
Dr Michio Kaku We will inevitably make contact with Alien life get use to it
Freeman Dyson life space Jupiter alien extraterrestrial Europa astronomy
Ron Amitron - February 2011 - Alien Timelines & Their Effect on Us (Lecture at Conscious L...
Alien Engineering Part 5

     More from this user

     Related Groups


     More on Sciencestage.com


 
  • Video url:                           Embed code: 

  • NASA  status
    (0) (0 Votes)
    Views: (8804)   Date: (06-12-10)   Time: (00:09:39)
  • Description:

    NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built with Toxic Chemical


    Press Conference, short version: December 2, 2010


    NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth.

    Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. The microorganism substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components.

    "The definition of life has just expanded," said Ed Weiler, NASA's associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at the agency's Headquarters in Washington. "As we pursue our efforts to seek signs of life in the solar system, we have to think more broadly, more diversely and consider life as we do not know it."

    This finding of an alternative biochemistry makeup will alter biology textbooks and expand the scope of the search for life beyond Earth. The research is published in this week's edition of Science Express.

    Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are the six basic building blocks of all known forms of life on Earth. Phosphorus is part of the chemical backbone of DNA and RNA, the structures that carry genetic instructions for life, and is considered an essential element for all living cells.

    Phosphorus is a central component of the energy-carrying molecule in all cells (adenosine triphosphate) and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Arsenic, which is chemically similar to phosphorus, is poisonous for most life on Earth. Arsenic disrupts metabolic pathways because chemically it behaves similarly to phosphate.

    "We know that some microbes can breathe arsenic, but what we've found is a microbe doing something new -- building parts of itself out of arsenic," said Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA Astrobiology Research Fellow in residence at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., and the research team's lead scientist. "If something here on Earth can do something so unexpected, what else can life do that we haven't seen yet?"

    The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria. In the laboratory, the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a diet that was very lean on phosphorus, but included generous helpings of arsenic. When researchers removed the phosphorus and replaced it with arsenic the microbes continued to grow. Subsequent analyses indicated that the arsenic was being used to produce the building blocks of new GFAJ-1 cells.

    The key issue the researchers investigated was when the microbe was grown on arsenic did the arsenic actually became incorporated into the organisms' vital biochemical machinery, such as DNA, proteins and the cell membranes. A variety of sophisticated laboratory techniques was used to determine where the arsenic was incorporated.

    The team chose to explore Mono Lake because of its unusual chemistry, especially its high salinity, high alkalinity, and high levels of arsenic. This chemistry is in part a result of Mono Lake's isolation from its sources of fresh water for 50 years.

    The results of this study will inform ongoing research in many areas, including the study of Earth's evolution, organic chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, disease mitigation and Earth system research. These findings also will open up new frontiers in microbiology and other areas of research.

    "The idea of alternative biochemistries for life is common in science fiction," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the agency's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. "Until now a life form using arsenic as a building block was only theoretical, but now we know such life exists in Mono Lake."

    The research team included scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University in Tempe, Ariz., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Penn., and the Stanford Synchroton Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, Calif.

    NASA's Astrobiology Program in Washington contributed funding for the research through its Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology program and the NASA Astrobiology Institute. NASA's Astrobiology Program supports research into the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth.

     Related Documents

     Related Wikipedia Results

     Related Pubmed Results

     Related Nature.com Results

     Related on Youtube Results
  • Inside Kalashnikov: New model of AK rifles on sale in 2015
    Inside Kalashnikov: New model of AK rifles on sale in 2015 Legendary Russian arms manufacturer Kalashnikov granted access to its factory in Izhevsk on Friday to see production of its new line of AK rifles, which are being readied for sale in 2015.... From: RT Views: 301 82 ratings Time: 00:27 More in News & Politics
  • Model Sora Choi New York Fashion Life 1st - 도수코 모델 최소라의 뉴욕 패션 라이프 1화
    Model Sora Choi New York Fashion Life 1st - 도수코 모델 최소라의 뉴욕 패션 라이프 1화 Top model Choi Sora's awesome New York real fashion life! Choi Sora who is winner of next top model season 3 in Korea! Sora who is a top model in the World working with Louis Vuitton, Marc... From: insiteTV Views: 301 48 ratings Time: 08:48 More in Entertainment
  • New penalties in Drink and Drive cases - Teenmaar News
    New penalties in Drink and Drive cases - Teenmaar News Central government will implement serious penalties in Drunk and Drive cases, Police will be arrest and punished drunk and drivers with jail term. Jail term depended by their alcohol percentage... From: V6 News Telugu Views: 32 1 ratings Time: 02:34 More in News & Politics
  • Q&A: Hubby, Hate, New Cat? + Giveaway WINNERS!
    Q&A: Hubby, Hate, New Cat? + Giveaway WINNERS! My first Q&A - your questions answered, and the winners for the 100K Giveaway will be announced as well! ♥ Thank you to everyone who entered the giveaway and thank you also for your support!... From: macshadowcombos Views: 301 146 ratings Time: 20:50 More in Howto & Style
  • PK Movie - Aamir Khan and Fat Barber Scene Had 12 Re-takes | New Bollywood Movies News 2014
    PK Movie - Aamir Khan and Fat Barber Scene Had 12 Re-takes | New Bollywood Movies News 2014 Shooting for some of the funny scenes in "PK" were not easy for the team including Mr Perfectionist "Aamir Khan". The Bum scene of the Fat Barber was one of the most difficult to shoot for... From: thehuntvideo Views: 64 1 ratings Time: 01:20 More in Entertainment
  • Angry Birds Epic - New Birds Arena Player Vs Player MAX Level
    Angry Birds Epic - New Birds Arena Player Vs Player MAX Level NEW Update Download Angry Birds Go! ▻http://goo.gl/EXeHpN NEW Update Angry Birds Epic:Download Link: http://goo.gl/BdiHVk Angry Birds Epic - New Angry Birds Vs Angry Birds Bird Arena Angry. From: ArcadeGo.com Views: 430 9 ratings Time: 10:05 More in Gaming
  • Meet The New Guys - Jae Crowder, Jameer Nelson, & Brandan Wright Are Now Celtics
    Meet The New Guys - Jae Crowder, Jameer Nelson, & Brandan Wright Are Now Celtics Jae Crowder, Jameer Nelson, & Brandan Wright step to the podium for the first time since being acquired by the Boston Celtics in exchange for Rajon Rondo. From: CLNS Radio Views: 264 5 ratings Time: 10:57 More in Sports
  • World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor - Gaining a new Follower: Magister Krelas
    World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor - Gaining a new Follower: Magister Krelas Fear get a new follower at level 94, and kills another Rare. No'losh. -- Watch live at http://www.twitch.tv/battlevortex Follow or Subscribe to Battle Vortex TV: BVTV Home: http://battlevortex.tv... From: Battle Vortex Views: 11 0 ratings Time: 22:59 More in Gaming
  • Hackers Send New Messages To Sony
    Hackers Send New Messages To Sony The hackers behind a devastating cyberattack at Sony Pictures have sent a new message to executives at the company, crediting them for a "very wise" decision to cancel the Christmas day release... From: The Young Turks Views: 16789 600 ratings Time: 07:00 More in News & Politics
  • Minecraft: RIDICULOUS WORLD MOD (UNIQUE BIOMES, NEW MOBS, & MORE!) Mod Showcase
    Minecraft: RIDICULOUS WORLD MOD (UNIQUE BIOMES, NEW MOBS, & MORE!) Mod Showcase The Ridiculous World Mod adds weird new biomes and mobs! Help me out and share it with your friends! Epic Shirts! https://www.districtlines.com/PopularMMOs/ Like my Facebook! From: PopularMMOs Views: 43893 3983 ratings Time: 11:27 More in Gaming
  • Silver, OIL & the new ICE AGE
    Silver, OIL & the new ICE AGE Silver, OIL & the new ICE AGE SILVER Mac D's Indicate a BUY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0kggcD79728 Silver & Demand Destruction. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXkaEemt8yw When I ... From: syyenergy7 Views: 170 16 ratings Time: 32:07 More in Education
  • The Amazing Race New Season Preview
    The Amazing Race New Season Preview The new season of "The Amazing Race" featuring all dating couples premieres Feb. 25 on the CBS Television Network. From: The Amazing Race Views: 643 36 ratings Time: 00:36 More in Entertainment
  • New trend in medicine focuses on dance rehab
    New trend in medicine focuses on dance rehab A new trend in medicine focuses on performers and dance medicine. http://bit.ly/1zGFhCs. From: ABC7 WJLA Views: 0 0 ratings Time: 01:48 More in News & Politics
  • EPA lays out new rules on coal ash disposal
    EPA lays out new rules on coal ash disposal Environmental groups have long pushed for coal ash, a by-product of coal burning energy production that contains toxic contaminants, to be classified as a hazardous material. While the EPA... From: PBS NewsHour Views: 189 6 ratings Time: 06:09 More in People & Blogs
  • The Crew - Part 20 - New Orleans (Let's Play / Walkthrough / Gameplay)
    The Crew - Part 20 - New Orleans (Let's Play / Walkthrough / Gameplay) Buy this game! http://amzn.to/1szjlnk The Crew Playlist: http://bit.ly/1oGxZNm Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TmarTn Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/TmarTn Call of Duty Channel: http://www.you... From: TmarTn2 Views: 11566 517 ratings Time: 16:56 More in Gaming
  • 'Dancing with the Stars' Gets a New Contestant
    'Dancing with the Stars' Gets a New Contestant Ellen discovered the upcoming season of "Dancing with the Stars" features someone near and dear to her heart. From: TheEllenShow Views: 29662 1119 ratings Time: 01:16 More in Entertainment
  • LeBrons new crb dribble He dribbles Thabo turns into a crab
    LeBrons new crb dribble He dribbles Thabo turns into a crab Vine LeBrons new crb dribble He dribbles Thabo turns into a crab LeBrons new crb dribble He dribbles Thabo turns into a crab LeBrons new crb dribble He dribbles Thabo turns into a crab LeBrons... From: FunVines Views: 0 0 ratings Time: 00:28 More in People & Blogs
  • How Girls Get Ready for New Years!
    How Girls Get Ready for New Years! "How girls get ready for New Years!" GUYS WANNA GET BOXY CHARM?! the value of the box is over $110 but the box is only $21 a month http://www.boxycharm.com Watch my last video! From: Rclbeauty101 Views: 159648 15519 ratings Time: 06:27 More in People & Blogs
  • How Guys Get Ready For New Year's
    How Guys Get Ready For New Year's I hope you guys enjoy my collab with Rachel! We spent foreverr filming & editing so make sure to give it a thumbs up! Can we get to 30000 likes?❤️ Follow me on The Hunt @jackbaran Get... From: thatsojack Views: 83775 12532 ratings Time: 04:16 More in Entertainment
  • Rajon Rondo Unleashes 3 New Passes
    Rajon Rondo Unleashes 3 New Passes Watch Rajon Rondo unveil three passes you haven't seen him make in a game. Follow him on twitter @RajonRondo. From: Bleacher Report Views: 9479 204 ratings Time: 01:14 More in Sports
  • New Supply Drop Quests - Scump Choke
    New Supply Drop Quests - Scump Choke Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/OpTic_Scumper MLG LiveStream - http://www.mlg.tv/Scump Buy Scuf products using code 'Scump' for 5% savings ------ http://scufgaming.com/?redirect=US Buy Astro... From: Scumperjumper Views: 70264 3935 ratings Time: 14:59 More in People & Blogs
  • BEST NEW RAPPER! (12.18.14 - Day 2060)
    BEST NEW RAPPER! (12.18.14 - Day 2060) new beanies and signed posters at http://CTFxCmerch.com http://instagram.com/CharlesTrippy http://twitter.com/CharlesTrippy (↓↓ click show more ↓↓) Tour Dates http://wethekingsmusic.com/... From: CTFxC Views: 48087 3576 ratings Time: 10:37 More in People & Blogs
  • NEW Glitch? NO WARNING KILL!-Five Nights At Freddy's 2
    NEW Glitch? NO WARNING KILL!-Five Nights At Freddy's 2 So I decided to try and beat Fazbear Fever, everything was going swell and then OLD BONNIE appeared out of NOWHERE as I pulled my camera down and rushed to put on my mask? Extremely ... From: xxProClassGamerxx Views: 42500 1121 ratings Time: 03:14 More in Gaming
  • Tekken 7's New Character Lucky Chloe Received Poorly By Fans
    Tekken 7's New Character Lucky Chloe Received Poorly By Fans It seems Lucky Chloe won't be making her way to North America with the Tekken 7 release. Why? Katsuhiro Harada, chief developer of the Tekken series, did not take kindly to criticism of the... From: NerdAlert Views: 2054 129 ratings Time: 05:37 More in Gaming
  • Dan Kidega sworn in as new East African Legislative Assembly speaker
    Dan Kidega sworn in as new East African Legislative Assembly speaker Daniel Fred Kidega has been elected as the new speaker of the East African Legislative Assembly. His election, today, comes two days after Margaret Zziwa Nantongo was im-peached as the... From: NTV Uganda Views: 162 0 ratings Time: 01:16 More in News & Politics

  •      Related Answers Results



























       

      Powered free by PHPmotion