Publication year: 2011Source: Energy Policy, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 29 July 2011Matt, CroucherWe discuss that whilst energy conservation and energy efficiency both ultimately have the same goal they attempt to achieve this via very different approaches. We then discuss how both options face significant barriers to ultimately successfully reduce electricity consumption. Highlights: ► Energy efficiency and energy conservation are significantly different. ► Each mechanism faces different barriers to success. ► Energy efficiency needs to solve the energy efficiency gap. ► Energy conservation will always be limited by the presence of consumer surplus. ► Improving energy efficiency deployment may require increased subsidization.