In the developing vertebrate retina, diverse neuronal subtypes originate from multipotent progenitors in a conserved order and are integrated into an intricate laminated architecture. Recent progress in mammalian photoreceptor development has identified a complex relationship between six key transcription-regulatory factors (RORβ, OTX2, NRL, CRX, NR2E3
Recent evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins and their upstream and downstream regulators have key roles in many fundamental processes during neurodevelopment. Disruption of GSK3 signalling adversely affects brain development and is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we discuss the mechanisms
Heat shock factors (HSFs) are essential for all organisms to survive exposures to acute stress. They are best known as inducible transcriptional regulators of genes encoding molecular chaperones and other stress proteins. Four members of the HSF family are also important for normal development and
This Review focuses on the earliest steps in the formation of lymphoid tissues during embryogenesis, describing the cellular and molecular requirements. The authors compare this with the development of lymphoid structures in mucosal tissues after birth and of tertiary lymphoid organs at sites of chronic inflammation.
NKT cells instruct CD8+ thymocytes to adopt an innate-like phenotype.
Evolutionary developmental biology is being advanced by quantitative methods for studying morphology. This Review considers such approaches and emerging insights into interactions between genetic and non-genetic factors, as well as the evolutionary constraints that influence shape.
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery9, 348–349 (2010)The news in brief article noted that there were six new investigational drugs in clinical trials for tuberculosis. However, in addition to the six compounds mentioned, three other compounds are in clinical
Current management of major depression, a common and debilitating disorder with a high social and personal cost, is far from satisfactory. All available antidepressants act through monoaminergic mechanisms, so there is considerable interest in novel non-monoaminergic approaches for potentially improved treatment. One such strategy involves
X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a complex human disease that causes intellectual disability. Causal mutations have been found in approximately 90 X-linked genes; however, molecular and biological functions of many of these genetically defined XLMR genes remain unknown.
AP - A look at economic developments and activity in major stock markets around the world Friday: