Histone gene expression is tightly coordinated with DNA replication, as it is activated at the onset of S phase and suppressed at the end of S phase. Replication-dependent histone gene expression is precisely controlled at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.
During apoptosis, hundreds of proteins are cleaved by caspases, most of them by the executioner caspase-3. However, caspase-7, which shares the same substrate primary sequence preference as caspase-3, is better at cleaving poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) and Hsp90 cochaperone p23, despite a lower intrinsic activity.
Low-cost, high-yield production of graphene nanosheets (GNs) is essential for practical applications. We have achieved high yield of edge-selectively carboxylated graphite (ECG) by a simple ball milling of pristine graphite in the presence of dry ice. The resultant ECG is highly dispersable in various solvents to self-exfoliate into single- and few-layer (≤ 5 layers) GNs.
The heavy strand of mtDNA contains two promoters with nonoverlapping functions. The role of the minor heavy-strand promoter (HSP2) is controversial, because the promoter has been difficult to activate in an in vitro system.
Surface charges of proteins have in several cases been found to function as “structural gatekeepers,” which avoid unwanted interactions by negative design, for example, in the control of protein aggregation and binding. The question is then if side-chain charges, due to their desolvation penalties, play a corresponding role in protein folding by avoiding competing, misfolded traps?
S100A4 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins that is directly involved in tumor metastasis. It binds to the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) tail near the assembly competence domain (ACD) promoting filament disassembly, which could be associated with increasing metastatic potential of tumor cells.
The 26S proteasome, a molecular machine responsible for regulated protein degradation, consists of a proteolytic core particle (20S CP) associated with 19S regulatory particles (19S RPs) subdivided into base and lid subcomplexes. The assembly of 19S RP base subcomplex is mediated by multiple dedicated chaperones.
Nitrogenase catalyzes the reduction of N2 and protons to yield two NH3 and one H2. Substrate binding occurs at a complex organo-metallocluster called FeMo-cofactor (FeMo-co). Each catalytic cycle involves the sequential delivery of eight electrons/protons to this cluster, and this process has been framed within a kinetic scheme developed by Lowe and Thorneley.
TLS/FUS (TLS) is a multifunctional protein implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription and mRNA processing, as well as in both cancer and neurological disease. However, little is currently known about TLS target genes and how they are recognized. Here, we used ChIP and promoter microarrays to identify genes potentially regulated by TLS.
mRNA control hinges on the specificity and affinity of proteins for their RNA binding sites. Regulatory proteins must bind their own sites and reject even closely related noncognate sites.