Iron increases synthesis rates of proteins encoded in iron-responsive element (IRE)-mRNAs; metabolic iron (“free,” “labile”) is Fe2+. The noncoding IRE-RNA structure, approximately 30 nt, folds into a stem loop to control synthesis of proteins in iron trafficking, cell cycling, and nervous system function.
We have developed and implemented a sequence identification algorithm (inSeq) that processes tandem mass spectra in real-time using the mass spectrometer’s (MS) onboard processors. The inSeq algorithm relies on accurate mass tandem MS data for swift spectral matching with high accuracy.
Infectious prions containing the pathogenic conformer of the mammalian prion protein (PrPSc) can be produced de novo from a mixture of the normal conformer (PrPC) with RNA and lipid molecules.
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) usually catalyze the biosynthesis of peptide natural products by sequential selection, activation, and condensation of amino acid precursors.
The γ-secretase complex, composed of presenilin, anterior-pharynx-defective 1, nicastrin, and presenilin enhancer 2, catalyzes the intramembranous processing of a wide variety of type I membrane proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch.
Processivity clamps such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the checkpoint sliding clamp Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1) act as versatile scaffolds in the coordinated recruitment of proteins involved in DNA replication, cell-cycle control, and DNA repair.
Peptide hormones and neuropeptides have important roles in physiology and therefore the regulation of these bioactive peptides is of great interest. In some cases proteolysis controls the concentrations and signaling of bioactive peptides, and the peptidases that mediate this biochemistry have proven to be extremely successful drug targets.
Dietary fish oil containing ω3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), elicit cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects through unresolved mechanisms that may involve competition and inhibition at multiple levels.
Human malaria infection begins with a one-time asymptomatic liver stage followed by a cyclic symptomatic blood stage. All high-throughput malaria drug discovery efforts have focused on the cyclic blood stage, which has limited potential for the prophylaxis, transmission blocking, and eradication efforts that will be needed in the future.
Intron-containing genes are often transcribed more efficiently than nonintronic genes. The effect of introns on transcription of genes is an evolutionarily conserved feature, being exhibited by such diverse organisms as yeast, plants, flies, and mammals. The mechanism of intron-mediated transcriptional activation, however, is not entirely clear.